小聊设计思想的迈入。Design Thinking 概览。

店铺半年会后各地都当开口计划思想,各处都于努力。我们领导人还是那个跟得上潮流的呗。因以哈佛商贸评论和福布斯的通讯后“设计思想”在生意中吃广泛关注及实施起来。前几乎年美国五星级商学院就拿规划思想(design
thinking)纳入课程体系,斯坦福大学建立D.School等。在John
Maeda《科技中的宏图》年报告,很多杀柜跟独角兽的老祖宗或高层里还产生设计师在其间,像IBM和麦肯锡前段时间宣布了那个极其高级职业中对设计师的选。从04年交2016年生越50寒知名规划企业受收购,其中15,16年生26寒。可见设计于商贸的青睐,及设计思想的暑。虽然好恼火,可能多丁觉着他如VR、大数目、共享自行车等正起来的。实际上,“设计思想”(实际也是计划性)做啊同样种植艺术就走过了相同截非亏的提高历史了。何不停止一下,了解一下前身和近况也。做扫尾桌面研究后便花费了接触时间整理了该文,把由工业时代到现影响设计思想的人士做只小介绍,因涉及内容实在是无与伦比多了,被推广上来之,纯粹是看什么人耳熟能详,哪些人记录之详实些,不对的地方要指正,感谢伟大的互联网,感谢呢计划思想付诸实践的“先烈”们。

作者:Thomas Lockwood, University of Westminster PhD, Integrated design
Management.

1960前方 包豪斯底计划思想,人文与挥霍,国际现代主义和大众文化

涉工业革命,大萧条和二战后底工业规划。 兼顾效率生产及美学为主底一代。

Design Thinking 概览

设计思想本质上是为用户也中心,强调考察,协作,快速学习,视觉化点子,快速概念原型,兼商业分析,最终影响创新和商策略的创新过程。他的目的是将顾客,设计师以及商业人士构成至成品、服务还是商业的宏图过程及。它是怀念像未来状态及将活,服务与体会带顶市场达成之家伙。设计思想术语上来拘禁像是下设计师的精灵与艺术解决问题,不管问题是哪些的。它不能够替代专业设计师或方式和手艺设计,但她是启示创新之一模一样栽方法。

规划思想的几单至关重要条件:

1.基深受现场调研深入理解消费者

2.同用户与复合型团队共同协作,寻找突破性创新、显著升级以及增加新价值达

3.由此视觉化,亲手体验及飞跃原型来加速学习,快速获得用户举报。目标是经过快速多次之黄来获取更新。

4.原型化,可以是概念草图,粗糙的大体模块,或故事角色板,或同等组场景故事等

5.并行进行商业分析,是殊关键之一点。

彼得·贝伦斯(Peter Behrens)

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业规划的先行者,第一各类当代艺术设计师,是一代人的一把手,包括无与伦比出名的现代主义建筑师
密斯·范德罗(坚持”少就凡是基本上“的修哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之大),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三人数犹当外的工作室为外干活了。他是第一个尝试综合工艺与技能构成的设计师。

Design Thinking / Design management / Design Leadership / Design strategy 的区别

笔者的意是,
设计思想是同样种植助发现非显性的需求要会,帮助创建新的化解方案的办法。设计管理偏重于治本和领导设计团队,过程及计划性产出物(产品、服务、沟通、环境与交互)。设计负责人及设计策略更多着想的是规划思想以及统筹管理之频率及出现物上。

包豪斯:全新设计策略的启蒙

1919年格罗皮乌斯于德国创办包豪斯,是首先所拿贝伦斯的想法应用到高等教学中。密斯是终极一至校长。1930年以纳粹的下压力下关闭,学校的设计师们都搬向美国,二战后包豪斯的统筹哲学(平衡艺术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国的计划思想,随着这些口于美国每处落脚,设计之沉思运动吗于全美各地开。

规划思想在买卖、品牌,服务规划,客户体验上

创新使得商业的出入,设计使得创新。

而咱的问题已经远远超过了商业问题,像MIT和哈佛于化解之问题就是系统层面的题目,像咱的食物供给体系,儿童肥胖,急救健康相当,作为一个设计师以及计划思考者,有这般的机遇错过化解这样的题目是多的快,通过协调能够影响与转移社会问题。

计划协作和咨询在美国前行启动

1920-1930里头与包豪斯同产生震慑的美国工业以及图表设计师,像 Harley Earl,
Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald
Desky(都是以美国诞生的),这些设计师将规划协作与咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的傅同影响着美国的图像和工业设计。

  • 哈利·厄尔 Harley
    Earl
    ,首号在统筹汽车及行使市场分策略的设计师

    Chevrolet Corvette

  • 雷蒙德·洛威 Raymond
    Loewy
    ,设计咨询升级现有技术产品
    于匪改任何技术下,通过整合美学、材料、制造大大改变十分年代丑陋的家电产品,第一号上上《时代》的设计师。他的筹划不同让包豪斯的“形式从功能”(Form
    Follows
    Function),较偏于市场主义的“形式从市场”,他已说罢:“当商品在同样之价钱和效益下竞争,设计虽是绝无仅有的歧异”。他成立及时不过酷之计划企业,接授设计委托,并坐“洛威设计”的名义发表,“洛威设计”在雅年代是同种可以设计之表示、销售保障的代名词,这同一作法在今天为会见于一些计划企业。

    洛威底“阿汎提”设计草图,1963年

  • 亨利·德雷福斯 Henry
    Dreyfuss
    ,把丁以因素做呢产品的基本设计
    于该1955年底刊登的《Designing for
    People》平等题被阐述了盖人口吗依照之筹划意见,以人数乎核心的设计极端早实践者和创始人。

    Designing for People 书中节选

  • 保罗·兰德 Paul
    Rand
    ,将品牌识别和国际主义相结合
    IBM,ABC,FEEDX,西屋、NeXT等视觉系统的设计,将包豪斯倡导的现世方式和计划思想与美学标准,应用至商贸服务统筹受到。

    IBM

ABC

“Design is relationship. Design is a relationship between form and
content.”

  • 乔治·尼尔森和查里斯夫妇,为家中和办公室系统规划
    1945年乔治·尼尔森于Herman
    Miller做设计总监时即便将设计思想带进了家电概念设计中,设计师不以单干而是同同样广大的设计师从网环境的角度来拘禁产品设计。在就同见以及方针下查里斯同雷·埃蒙斯设计了Eames
    Loung
    Chair。Charles经常鼓励工作人员多举行试验,他早就说他的想望就是“和那些从事为毫无用处的型之人一块坐班。这样会拍出新想的火花。”

    Eames Loung Chair

Chapter 1 Notes on the Evolution of Design Thinking: A Work in Progress

发展中之计划思想

by Craig M. Vogel, Director of Center for Design Research and
Innovation, College of Design Architecture, Art and Planning, University
of Cincinnati

1960-1980 建立统筹执行,设计活动集中

计划执行在短短的20年时间跨度里,不仅再也定义了计划是啊,更是说明了它们可以就此来开呀。这个相对短但非常密集的等级在全球范围外出生了少于栽截然不同之宏图艺术。
60年代的美国=设计科学
60年代的美国,工业规划及产品设计取得的首先不怎么步的开拓进取是业内及从工程以及是区分出。但她们并无动得重新远,工业规划还是要依据可量化,可度量的题材跟事件。设计工作室通常在高等学校实验室或工厂,不像今天的工作室在城镇里发生像咖啡厅一样的装修。
代表来像MIT的Fuller建立多学科的才女团队进行更新。

60年份斯堪的纳维亚=协同计划
于同一期,Fuller不同的斯堪的纳维亚设计,通过请大学与计划讨论。这些设计师扮演促进者或指导者角色,每个人同专家及工友或居民并设计他们想如果动的出品还是劳务。开发了无数冲天创新之色,像Utopia,NJMF,DEMOkratiske
Stryringssystemer,DEMOS等扶持工人,工会,工作场所,政府部门应针对频频转变之环境。
这种工作方式一直适用于我们今天领的劳动计划,这种工作措施严重依赖设计师的尽头做边筹划以及引导,使用工具如”Mock-up
envisionment(模拟设想)”,未来缠,组织游戏,合作原型,人种学领域研究,社会调研等发生新想法要改进现有。高度与
和佚代,集体讨论。
暨20世纪80年间中,因为电脑的普及与HCI(人机交互)的向上,斯堪的纳维亚之合作规划终于迈出大西洋过来美国,被大规模地称呼参与式设计。

PETER BEHRENS: CORPORATE IDENTITY AND BRAND DIFFERENTIATION

Peter Behrens (14 April 1868 – 27 February 1940) was a
German
architect
and
designer.
He was important for the modernist
movement,
and several of the movement’s leading names (including Ludwig Mies van
der
Rohe,
Le
Corbusier
and Walter
Gropius)
worked for him in earlier stages of their careers. He was one of the
first designers who tried to synthesize the two polar positions of
technology and craft.

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业规划的先驱者,第一号当代艺术设计师,是当代人的大师,包括无与伦比出名的现代主义建筑师
密斯·范德罗(坚持”少就凡是基本上“的修哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之大),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三人还于外的工作室为外干活了。他是首先只尝试综合工艺及技巧整合的设计师。

Buckminister Fuller 的没错统筹

1956年从在MIT 创意工程实验室教授CADS(Comprehensive Anticipatory Design
Science)。他的实验室应用科学方法来设计。Fuller的法子成立以工程师、工业设计师、材料专家、化学专家的人才团队的功底及展开更新。代表作品有:Geodesic
Domestic, the Dymaxion car, Triton city, the “Fly’s Eye” Dome等。

the Dymaxion car

“设计师是综合了艺术家,发明家,机械师,经济专家与方针让平套。”

The BAUHAUS: A NEW DESIGN STRATEGY FOR EDUCATION

包豪斯:全新设计策略的教导

1919年格罗皮乌斯以道义创建包豪斯,是率先所将贝伦斯的想法应用至高等教学中。密斯是最后一至校长。1930年以纳粹的下压力下关闭,学校的设计师们还搬于美国,二战后包豪斯的统筹哲学(平衡艺术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国底筹划思想,随着这些口当美国每处落脚,设计之思辨运动吗当全美各地放。

Scandinavian 协同计划

50年代盖简单、少、功能性,具有包容性和民主性为特色的了有别于其他设计艺术的Scandinavian设计活动,在北欧国家一直本着系到今。受语言的障碍使得这同倒没有记录并传到更广阔。60年间的Scandinavian协同计划以计算机的人机交互与劳务统筹达到有众多之发展。

Chairs at the Danish Design Center, Denmark

CORPORATE AND CONSULTING DESIGN IN THE UNITED STATES,设计协作与咨询在美国的前行

1920-1930中跟包豪斯同发生影响之美国工业及图纸设计师,像 Harley Earl,
Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald
Desky(都是当美国落地之),这些设计师将设计协作和咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的育及共同影响在美国之图像以及工业设计。

Harley Earl and General Motors: Market Segmentation in the Auto Industry

Harley Earl 美国篇位在规划汽车及利用市场细分策略,1927-1959

Raymond Loewy, Design Consultant: Updating Existing Technology

Loewy merged aesthetics, materials, and manufacturing to transform the
loud and ugly electric refrigerator of the 1920s into a modern kichen
appliance. The consumer response was immediate. In one year, sales of
Sears’s Cold Spot increased from 65,000 to 250,000 units – without any
significant change in core technology.

Henry Dreyfuss: Integrating Human Factors as a Core Component of Product
Design

Dreyfuss developed a more scientific approach to human factors and
integrated that perspective with product aesthetics. “to develop
individuals who will be competent to change their environment to greater
conformity with moral ideals.” This became the basis for Dreyfuss’s
human-centered approach. He expressed those ideas in his 1955 book,
Designing for people. Dreyfuss was a more articulate practitioner of
human-centered design than was Loewy.

Paul Rand and Elliot Noyes: Corporate Identity and the International
Movement

Noyes was educated as an architect at Harvard and studied under Gropius
and Bauhaus furniture designer Marcel Breuer. Rand, for his part, was
heavily influenced by what had come to be called the Swiss Style of
graphic design and helped to build a relationship between Switzerland’s
Basel school of Design and Yale University.

One of the first strategic design decisions Rand and Noyes conceived for
international Business Machines was to reduce its long and awkward name
to IBM. Modern identities, they believed, needed to be easy to read and
pronounce in all applications and all languages. The new logo and
identity system was integrated with an approach to curtain wall
architecture that was applied to the new buildings at IBM, as well as to
the outer panel construction design of mainframe computer systems.

George Nelson and Charles and Ray Eames: System Design for Home and Work

When George Nelson was appointed design director for Herman Miller in
1945, he brought a new level of design thinking to the concept of
furniture design for the home and office.

Modern office buildings were being designed using a systematic approach,
and Nelson saw the interior office landscape similarly-as a potential
opportunity for the application of modular design design systems. Each
individual piece of furniture would act as one in a series of flexible
parts with multiple configurations that would fit the modern open office
that had come into being in the 1950s and ’60s.

The husband-and-wife team of Charles and Ray Eames contributed some of
their most important designs under this new strategy. Both of them
studied at Michigan’s Cranbrook Academy of Art, and both were influenced
by Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. The Eames lounge chair and airport
seating solution, for Herman Miller, are two of the most influential
design projects of the twentieth century.

The ideas and work of Charles and Ray Eames represent a unique and vital
branch of design thinking. Their work is as powerful and influential as
that of Frank Lloyd Wright; yet they are virtually unknown outside of
the fields of design and architecture.

Herbert A. Simon

西蒙于1969出版的人造科学中,给规划一个新的归类与止。西蒙认为整个的宏图应受视为人造品,是当然之对立面。

“The engineer, and more generally the designer, is concerned with how
things ought to be — how they ought to be in order to attain goals,
and to function.”

“Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing
existing situations into preferred ones.”

FROM PRODUCT TO ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE

In 1975 Bill Hannon founded the Design Management Institute(DMI) in
Boston, Massachusetts. This was the first professional organization in
the world dedicated to improving the role of design in business, and
helped to define design management as a new practice.

In 1976 Victor Papanek published his Design for the Real World, asking
designers to see the potential of design thinking for social and
environmental responsibility. He accused designers of catering to the
small percentage of consumers who have everything, while ignoring those
in lower income levels and emerging economies, as well as people with
disabilities.

In 1982, Ralph Caplan wrote in By design that Mahatma Gandhi’s concept
of nonviolent protest was one of the most effective design solutions in
history.

The Nobel laureate Herb Simon stated that there are really two types of
science. One concerns the world humans are responsible for producing(the
science of the artificial), and the other concerns the world in which
humans evolved(the science of the natural).

Science, engineering, and technology factor shifts have occurred in each
decade in the last century, opening new opportunities for designers. The
key ingredient for business success is the presence of both an
innovative CEO who sees design as an investment, not a cost, and a
strategic design director or consultant who can place the value of the
design at the center of the company. If either one leaves, the value of
design is jeopardized.
把规划作为是斥资在,是免是资金;设计策略是店铺的主干;这有限点缺一不可才可能当今跟未来成为创新使得之庄。

维克多·帕帕奈克 也实世界计划

1971年
帕帕奈克的《为真正世界计划》给当时之规划行业投下了一样粒大炸弹。帕帕奈克提出好对此规划目的性的新观点,即设计应当为科普百姓服务;设计不仅应该为健康人服务,同时还必须考虑吧残疾人服务;设计应当认真考虑地球之少资源使问题,设计应该
为掩护我们居住的地球之有限资
源服务。维克多·帕帕奈克对绿色设计思潮有了直影响,他首次提出了设计伦理的价值观,即设计为何?在“波普”设计活动的如出一辙切开喧嚣的风潮中,开始有人从规划理论的角度严肃提出“设计目的”问题。这对当代规划之五常、现代统筹之目的性理论来说,是怪关键的一个起点。正以发此起点,日后的设计理论才起了更进一步尖锐之发展。

Chapter 2 The Designful Company by Marty Neumeier

2008 Survey of Wicked Problems

  1. Balancing long-term goals with short-term demands
  2. Predicting returns on innovative concepts
  3. Innovating at the increasing speed of change
  4. Winning the war for world-class talent
  5. Combining profitability with social responsibility
  6. Protecting margins in a commoditizing industry
  7. Multiplying success by collaborating across silos
  8. Finding unclaimed yet profitable market space
  9. Addressing the challenge of eco-sustainability
  10. Aligning strategy with customer experience

A wicked problem is a puzzle so persistent, pervasive, and slippery that
it can seem insoluble.

Business at bottom is not mechanical but human. Today, we find that
innovation without emotion is uninteresting. Products without aesthetics
are not compelling, brands without meaning are undesirable, and business
without ethics is unsustainable. The management model that got us here
is underpowered to move us forward. To succeed, the new model must
replace the win-lose nature of the assembly line with the win-win nature
of the network.

买卖的下线无是机而是人数。今天,我们发现创新没有感情是没有意思的。产品不抖是从未可比性的,品牌未曾意思价值是免会见生出欲望想要之,而买卖没有伦理是不行持续的。

The sure cure for Deming’s diseases, as well as for the top ten wicked
problems, is design. It’s the accelerator for the company car, the
powertrain for sustainable profits. Design drives innovation, innovation
powers brand, brand builds loyalty, and loyalty sustains profits. If you
want long-term profits, don’t start with technology-start with design.

There are really only two main components for business success: brands
and their delivery. All other activities- operations, finance,
manufacturing, marketing, sales, communications, human relations,
investor relations- are subcomponents.

Horst Rittel, “Wicked Problem”的提出者

首批聚焦于规划方式理论的研究者之一,与外的长辈们不同,他主张人之体验及感触在统筹时的要紧。第一软将气象学引入到经验设计被。

1980-1990 第二代表设计思想理论的产出

这时代人们管富有高度创意的设计师以及平常的计划性区分开来,把这些设计师在显微镜下研究,试着摸有什么叫她们灵感大爆发。在Nigel
Gross和Donald
Schön等研究员调查研究这些设计师独立工作时,及集体协作时的筹划过程。从社会对角度他们留意到管是私家或集体协作时设计创意无限重大之凡设计师的思考模式。这些计划过程的调查为后来其余事情进行创造性思维打开了大门。

Nigel Gross

Nigel
Gross在研究设计方之前是人机交互领域的研究员。在外的精本《Designerly
ways of
Knowing》研究设计师的思想与决定方式和另正规不同之凡呀?这对构建统筹思想有着充分可怜的影响。

“Everyone can — and does — design. We all design when we plan for
something new to happen, whether that might be a new version of a
recipe, a new arrangement of the living room furniture, or a new lay
tour of a personal web page. […] So design thinking is something
inherent within human cognition; it is a key part of what makes us
human.”

Donald Alan Schön

Donald Schön
背景是MIT的城市规划的讲解及哲学家,他的大多数办事以反对60年代的统筹专业的技术性。他出的自问实践,对于规划过程的打响十分重大。他的办事不仅大大影响了规划,而且影响了集体学习园地。

“The reflective practitioner allows himself to experience surprise,
puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or
unique. He reflects on the phenomenon before him, and on the prior
understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour. He carries
out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of
the phenomenon and a change in the situation.”

1990-2005 服务统筹以及多统筹工具的产出

以此时代,设计的限量第二浅扩大。在90年份初设计的限由创造人工制品扩大至互相与服务及。这种转移支持自Buchanan的《设计思想中之凶狠问题》一挥毫探讨了计划缓解复杂问题、模糊目标的潜力。
及2003年,欧洲处处之大学及卡内基梅隆以街头巷尾开始上课服务规划。服务统筹之起,及复杂问题为来新的计划性方式工具提供了好条件,包括为未设计师以及介入计划之家伙。

Donald Norman, User-Centered Design

咀嚼是、人因工等统筹领域的红世界。在1988年问世的《日常的规划》提出
“UCD”以用户为基本的计划性。
我们有的筹划应该依据“适合用记”这个大概的概念模型。他的眼光的基本是“我们日常生活中的大多数文化且于条件及,而休是以脑子里”,以用户也主导的道好理解用户之急需与发现左,并采取行动解决。诺曼的UCD设计思想开辟了初的设计方法视角。

Richard Buchanan,整合设计

Buchanan 原卡梅隆设计学院的企业主,他透过以Rittel和Simon
的理论与
Ezio
Manzini的宏图执行互动挂钩,重新讨论了计划于化解Wicked
Problems中的角色,在1992登的《Wicked Problems in Design
Thinking》中画了千篇一律漫长设计思想到更新的门路。在此后的有关计划思想的《Design
as a New Liberal
Art》中说设计开呢规范的力是“整合”,也许是坐专业性的亏,所以她再也产生连日各个科目的或者。

Design has no subject matter — that’s what make this a powerful
discipline. We MAKE our subject matter.

Liz Sanders 工具先导者

Sanders,实验心理学与人类学的PhD. ,Make
Tools的奠基人,是行使设计研究世界的前驱。今天众多以人数啊基本的计划性及计划性思想被使的家伙,技术和道都得落她。她也是合作计划工具箱的合伙人,对于规划研究感兴趣之人的话,这个是一个实用的指针。

Convivial ToolBox

This human-centered design revolution is causing us to rethink the
design process. In order to drive the human-centered design
revolution, we need to tap into the imaginations and dreams not only
of designers, but also of everyday people. New design spaces are
emerging in response to everyday people’s needs for creativity.

IDEO 融汇者

IDEO

IDEO1991年隔三差五出于三下设计企业联合而成,分别是David Delley
Design(斯坦福教授 David Kelley 创建),Based在伦敦之Moggridge
Associates和在旧金山的ID-Two(两者都是由Bill Moggridge创建), 及 Matrix
Product Design(由Mike Nuttall
创建)。大约于Buchanan构建统筹思想的还要,IDEO完成了三个店家的联合,在未来之十年更上一层楼面临,从学界以及筹划执行吸引了同一批判好有影响力的食指参加。
暨同时期的宏图企业差,他们同时请了人类学,商业战略,教育还是正常相当不等世界的师来指导与扩充他们计划团队以及流程。这个差不多学科团队的国策在起几年后收获了众多的荣。
今后他俩初步推广设计思想和为人口吧核心的设计,在d.school推出了教导计划,撰写书本,并以全世界的高校实践推广。

David & Tom Kelley

IDEO两只大家当跟教化工作,Kelley兄弟都是畅销书的撰稿人。
他们还擅长设计及店管理。他们合作之修《创新自信力》,讲述创新创意的看法,帮助个人和机构释放潜能,树立创新自信。
赶快前之Tom
Kelley的《创新的点子》里亮了IDEO创新思想。

“It turns out that creativity isn’t some rare gift to be enjoyed by
the lucky few — it’s a natural part of human thinking and behavior. In
too many of us it gets blocked. But it can be unblocked. And
unblocking that creative spark can have far-reaching implications for
yourself, your organization, and your community.” Tom Kelley

Tim Brown

[Tim Brown]
(https://www.ideo.com/people/tim-brown)IDEOIDEO)的CEO和工业设计师,
Brown一直是统筹思想与创新之积极向上倡导者 ,Design
thinking。他编写了成百上千针对未设计师运用规划思想方面的稿子,其中设计变更整个,设计思想如何变革组织及振奋创新。

In order to survive in today’s complex world, organizations need to
generate, embrace, and execute on new ideas. That takes creativity and
a creatively capable workforce. It’s the secret sauce, or in
evolutionary terms, it’s what keeps you fit. Organizations without it
can’t compete.

Jane Fulton Suri

发出心理学和修建学背景的IDEO 教母之称之Jane,
一直致力为开发多IDEO以人数呢按照的规划工具。引用其在IDEO的历程“她出了移情观察和体验原型的技艺,现在让大用于产品、服务同条件,及系统、组织及方针的翻新与统筹上。”她底书写《Thoughtless
Acts?》
展示了一直观测与计划灵感中的涉嫌。她近年来著了《Design
Ethics》的短篇。

Bill Moggridge

英国尽人皆知产品设计师,工业设计教学,交互设计以及IDEO创始人。他盖采纳人性工程设计理论,同时也是现在产品设计主流理论的开发者。他设计了第一贵贝壳式笔记本电脑,至今以是笔记本的主流外型。他作之《关键设计报告》介绍了互设计的历史,从Douglas
Engelbart到Will
Wright
到 Larry
Page
和 Sergey
Brin。

I don’t think that anyone has really told (people) what design is. It
doesn’t occur to most people that everything is designed — that every
building and everything they touch in the world is designed. Even
foods are designed now. So in the process of helping people understand
this, making them more aware of the fact that the world around us is
something that somebody has control of, perhaps they can feel some
sense of control, too. I think that’s a nice ambition.

2002-现在 设计思想在生意领域站据了一个重大之职务

自打20年前设计思想开始为提及,经历了好多的迭代,最近才拿走确认。
设计咨询公司连“IDEO”,
数码智能设计企业如果“青蛙”,软件设计公司假设“思特沃克”,服务统筹企业只要“肯定牛”等还于02-08年左右开始调整好之买卖战略,现在就改成企划行业的领先者。国内的店转变较晚到了2013年左右才起来调整,像Eico
Design。
如果商业擅长的铺面像麦肯锡等,也在2014年从经过收购计划企业拓展战略性的革命。[科技中的设计\ 2017](https://link.jianshu.com?t=https://designintechreport.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/dit-2017-1-0-1c-1.pdf)
劳务统筹领域的提高创造了通力合作企划以及插手统筹的初工具和流程。多学科团队的合作企划这等同浮动打开了间创新,使设计过程对每个人再也透明与卓有成效。除了以筹划领域在商贸领域呢开始用用计划思想与搭档企划之尽。Fuad
Luke,Sanders 和Manzini就是这块的先锋。
望包容性迈进的转移。随着智能手机的普及,微软提出使面向大众的设计,带在前所未有的包容性去思想与办事[Inclusive\ design\ at\ Microsoft](https://link.jianshu.com?t=https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/design/inclusive)

Alistair Fuad-Luke

Fuad-Luke平等各项自称为标准设计主持人、教育家、作家和活动家,目前在授课后来之计划性执行。他的类别强调和社区以及个人,社会福得和替代经济体系的盛开,合作,共同规划。他的书《Design
Activism》和《The
Eco-Design
Handbook》议论设计于可持续发展中之企图。

Deborah Szebeko

Szebeko23秋时在英国树立了ThinkPublic社会设计部门,专门从事公共部门和非政府组织的统筹和更新。用合作计划要关注社会问题,他们曾取得了大半宗殊荣。

We use a mixture of design processes. We’ve got a diversity of
designers, including service designers, graphics designers,
information designers, programmers, marketers, social scientists,
positive psychologists, and even anthropologists. This diversity of
experts bring different techniques related to their disciplines, and
this mixture creates a unique design process — we call it a co-design
process — whereby we capture public views.

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

Kat
holmes微软首席设计总监,随着智能装备的寻常,科技产品应该关注群众,应该朝着包容性迈进转变。设计个性具有包容,通过辨认排他性,我们会初步针对那些当日常生活中同无吃欢迎之宏图接触的用户建于和理心。

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

因资源来源以下:
[1] Thomas Lockwood. Design Thinking (Design Management Institue,
2009)
[2] John Maeda. Design In Tech Report(2016,2017)
[3] Jo Szczepanska. What is design thinking, why do I keep hearing
about
it?
[4] A BRIEF HISTORY OF DESIGN THINKING: THE
THEORY
[5] 大卫·瑞兹曼. 现代设计史
[6] Stefanie Di Russo.Understanding the behaviour of design thinking
in complex environments(2016)
[7] Rikke Dam, Teo Siang. What is Design Thinking and Why Is It So
Popular?
[8] Sean Van Tyne. Design Thinking: A Brief
History

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