The Economist 词汇解析(14)Day 4作业-A16236-Sharon

本期原文选自The Economist 2016-10-01之Leaders板块文章Why they’re
wrong,释义来自牛津高阶七版、剑桥高阶学习词典英汉双解第3本子、21世纪大英汉词典、元照英美拟词典等资源。如果你为在就学The
Economist,欢迎订阅我的文集The
Economist,一起读书交流。英文修习者可以经过上文中词汇,然后拿商论的官译文拨译成英文,再比英文原文进行较,找有差别,以此提高自己的英文水准。

先是,促进经济一体化,建设开放型经济。开放是亚太经济的生命线。20大抵年来,亚太经合组织分子坚持贸易势头和便利化,贸易量年均增长8%,是同期经济加快的一定量加倍多,为低太经济提高提供了安居动力。近年来,国际贸易发展进来低迷期。世界贸易组织预计,今年世贸易增长率或连续第五年低于经济加速。亚太面临相同压力,也迫切区域经济合作碎片化等挑战。任何区域交易安排要落普遍支持,必须坚持不懈开放、包容、普惠、共赢。我们应当构建平协商、共同参与、普遍受益的区域合作框架,封闭及排他性安排不是不错抉择。

In September 1843 the Liverpool Mercury reported on a large free-trade
rally in the city. The Royal Amphitheatre was overflowing【1】.
John Bright, a newly elected MP, spoke eloquently【2】 on the
merits of abolishing duties on imported food, echoing arguments made
in The Economist, a fledgling【3】 newspaper. Mr Bright told his
audience that when canvassing【4】, he had explained “how
stonemasons, shoemakers, carpenters and every kind of artisan suffered
if the trade of the country was restricted.” His speech in Liverpool
was roundly cheered【5】.

Frirst, economic
integration and a
new system for an open economy needs to be laid down( we should
promote open and integrated economy).
openness is the lifeline of the
regional economy. For more than 20 years, APEC member economies has
adhered to trade liberalization and facilitation, and trade in our
region has grown by a healthy annual average of 8%, a rate twice as much
as that of the corresponding period last year(wrong,more than doubling
its GDP growth in the same period) , driving a sustainable economic
growth throughout the region. In recent years,international trade has
plunged.This year world trade growth may still be slower than the
economic growth ,the fifth year in a row ,estimated the WTO. The same
pressure is on Asia Pacific—challenges such as the thorny
regional
economic
cooperation
fragmentization.Adherence
to openness, tolerance, and reciprocity should be enforced for any
regional trade arrangement to gain widespread support.

【1】overflow本义是溢起、漫出;overflow (with sth) 挤满了丁

建设小太自由贸易区,是涉亚太漫长繁荣之韬略行动,工商界朋友称“亚太经合组织的梦”。我们若坚决推进小太自由贸易区建设,为小太开放型经济提供制度保障。要重振贸易与投资之引擎作用,增强自由贸易安排开放性和包容性,维护多边贸易体制。

【2】eloquent 雄辩的,有口才的,传神的;副词eloquently;名词eloquence

【3】fledgling新生的;fledged 羽翼已丰的;fully-fledged
成熟的,完全合格的

【4】canvass (sb) (for sth) 游说,拉选票;to carry out a
canvass(名词); canvasser游说者,(选举中)监督投票的口

【5】roundly cheered 赢得满堂喝彩;roundly 有力地,广泛地

It is hard to imagine, 173 years later, a leading Western politician
being lauded for a defence of free trade. Neither candidate in
America’s presidential election is a champion【6】. Donald
Trump, incoherent on so many fronts, is clear in this area: unfair
competition from foreigners has destroyed jobs at home. He threatens
to dismantle【7】 the North American Free Trade Agreement,
withdraw from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and start a trade
war with China. To her discredit【8】, Hillary Clinton now
denounces the TPP, a pact she helped negotiate. In Germany, one of the
world’s biggest exporters, tens of thousands took to the streets
earlier this month to march against a proposed trade deal between the
European Union and the United States (see article).

【6】champion 捍卫者,拥护者

【7】dismantle 本义是拆起来,引申义为抛弃,取消

【8】to sb’s discredit 使有人名誉扫地

The backlash against trade is just one symptom of a pervasive anxiety
about the effects of open economies. Britain’s Brexit vote reflected
concerns about the impact of unfettered migration on public services,
jobs and culture. Big businesses are slammed for using foreign
boltholes【9】 to dodge taxes. Such critiques contain some
truth: more must be done to help those who lose out【10】 from
openness. But there is a world of difference between improving
globalisation and reversing it. The idea that globalisation is a scam
that benefits only corporations and the rich could scarcely be more
wrong.

【9】bolthole躲避处;bolt是螺栓的意,bolthole是螺栓孔,这里是引申义;bolthole
to dodge taxes 避税天堂(跟The Economist 2016-9-17的Leaders板块文章A
giant problem中之tax heaven意思相近)

【10】lose out 丧失,得不到

The real pro-poor policy

Exhibit A【11】 is the vast improvement in global living
standards in the decades after the second world war, which was
underpinned by an explosion in world trade. Exports of goods rose from
8% of world GDP in 1950 to almost 20% a half-century later. Export-led
growth and foreign investment have dragged hundreds of millions out of
poverty in China, and transformed economies from Ireland to South
Korea.

【11】Exhibit A 主要证据

Plainly【12】, Western voters are not much comforted by this
extraordinary transformation in the fortunes of emerging markets. But
at home, too, the overall benefits of free trade are
unarguable【13】. Exporting firms are more productive and pay
higher wages than those that serve only the domestic market. Half of
America’s exports go to countries with which it has a free-trade deal,
even though their economies account for less than a tenth of global
GDP.

【12】plainly 直截了本地,坦白地,简单明了地

【13】unarguable 无可置疑的;unarguably 毋庸置疑地

Protectionism, by contrast, hurts consumers and does little for
workers. The worst-off benefit far more from trade than the rich. A
study of 40 countries found that the richest consumers would lose 28%
of their purchasing power if cross-border trade ended; but those in
the bottom tenth would lose 63%. The annual cost to American consumers
of switching to non-Chinese tyres after Barack Obama slapped
on【14】
anti-dumping tariffs in 2009 was around $1.1 billion,
according to the Peterson Institute for International Economics. That
amounts to over $900,000 for each of the 1,200 jobs that were “saved”.

【14】slap sth on sth 强制执行

Openness delivers other benefits. Migrants improve not just their own
lives but the economies of host countries: European immigrants who
arrived in Britain since 2000 have been net contributors to the
exchequer【15】, adding more than £20 billion ($34 billion) to
the public finances between 2001 and 2011. Foreign direct investment
delivers competition, technology, management know-how and jobs, which
is why China’s overly cautious moves to encourage FDI disappoint (see
article).

【15】exchequer 国库,(英国)财政部

What have you done for me lately?

None of this is to deny that globalisation has its flaws. Since the
1840s advocates of free trade have known that, though the great
majority benefit, some lose out. Too little has been done to help
these people. Perhaps a fifth of the 6m or so net job losses in
American manufacturing between 1999 and 2011 stemmed from Chinese
competition; many of those who lost jobs did not find new ones. With
hindsight【16】, politicians in Britain were too
blithe【17】 about the pressures that migration from new EU
member states in eastern Europe brought to bear on public services.
And although there are no street protests about the speed and
fickleness【18】 in the tides of short-term capital, its ebb
and flow【19】
across borders have often proved damaging, not least
in the euro zone’s debt-ridden【20】 countries.

【16】hindsight 后见之明,事后诸葛亮

【17】blithe 漫不留神的

【18】fickleness 变化无常;fickle 变化无常的

【19】ebb and flow起伏消长;ebb 落潮,退潮

【20】debt-ridden债台高筑的;-ridden 充满,充斥

As our special report this week argues, more must be done to tackle
these downsides. America spends a paltry【21】 0.1% of its GDP,
one-sixth of the rich-country average, on policies to retrain workers
and help them find new jobs. In this context, it is
lamentable【22】 that neither Mr Trump nor Mrs Clinton offers
policies to help those whose jobs have been affected by trade or
cheaper technology. On migration, it makes sense to follow the example
of Denmark and link local-government revenues to the number of
incomers, so that strains on schools, hospitals and housing can be
eased. Many see the rules that bind signatories to trade pacts as an
affront【23】 to democracy. But there are ways that shared rules
can enhance national autonomy. Harmonising norms on how multinational
firms are taxed would give countries greater command over their public
finances. A co-ordinated approach to curbing volatile capital flows
would restore mastery over national monetary policy.

【21】paltry 微不足道的

【22】lamentable 令人遗憾的,令人可惜之;lament 对……表示失望;挽歌,悼词

【23】affront 侮辱,冒犯

These are the sensible responses to the peddlers of protectionism and
nativism. The worst answer would be for countries to turn their
backs on
【24】** globalisation. The case for openness remains
much the same as it did when this newspaper was founded to support the
repeal of the Corn Laws【25】. There are more—and more
varied—opportunities in open economies than in closed ones. And, in
general, greater opportunity makes people better off. Since the 1840s,
free-traders have believed that closed economies favour the powerful
and hurt the labouring classes. They were right then. They are right
now.

【24】turn sb’s back on sth 本义是转身背对在,引申为违,反对

【25】Corn Laws
《谷物法》,对各种粮食作物进口规定保护性关税的法,于1846年于废止。

【小结】(参考官方译文)

1843年9月之同等天,利物浦皇家剧场挤满了人数(overflowing),约翰•布莱特于台上滔滔不绝地(eloquently)论述取消食品进口关税的洋洋功利,这跟当时新生的(fledgling)《经济学人》的眼光相呼应。他说,在拉票(canvassing)时他解释了而英国的贸易中限制,各行各业的手艺人会遭到什么罪,他的演讲得了满堂喝彩(roundly
cheered)。而今,两位美国部候选人都未是自由贸易捍卫者(champion)。唐纳德·特朗普声称只要抛开(dismantle)北美自由贸易协定。希拉里·克林顿为抨击了其既赞助谈判之过太平洋伙伴关系协定,这让她声尽失(to
her
discredit)。人们对开放经济之震慑充满担忧,而针对贸易的显然反对(backlash)只是中间一个表象而已。大柜以用国外避税天堂(boltholes)逃税(dodge
taxes)而遭遇抨击。所以必须辅那些经济开放进程遭到的失败者(those who lose
out from openness)。自由贸易才是确实好穷人的国策(pro-poor
policy),其重大证据(Exhibit A)是乘(underpined
by)全球贸易之爆炸式发展,二战后数十年里全球在品位得到巨大改善。坦白地游说(plainly),新兴市场国家命运发生了非凡转变,这叫上天选民莫顶舒服。但以境内,自由贸易的整效果为无需置疑(unarguable)。相比之下,贸易保护主义对顾客和工友都无益处。2009年奥巴马对华轮胎强制执行(slapped
on)反倾销税之后,美国顾客转而购买非中国生轮胎的本钱大得多。贸易开放还会见带任何利益。2000年的话,进入英国底欧洲次大陆移民直接是英国国库的全都贡献者(net
contributors to the
exchequer)。然而,全球化不无遗憾。从1999交2011年,美国底制造业就业岗位大量压缩,这跟中国之竞争有关。事后看来(With
hindsight),对于欧盟东欧新成员国移民为公共服务造成的压力,英国政客为最为掉以轻心(blithe)。虽然对于短期资金快速而无常(fickleness)的流淌还没出现街头抗议,但资金的跨境涌入和流出(ebb
and
flow)却时时造成损伤,尤其是在欧元区里那些债台高筑(debt-ridden)的国家更是如此。要惦记解决这些题目,还亟需还多举措。对于再次培训工人、帮助失业工人再就业的国策者,美国底开发微不足道(paltry),仅为该GDP的0.1%。在这种气象下,特朗普和希拉里还并未提出帮忙下岗人群的政策,这可怜伤心(lamentable)。许多人数认为贸易协定绑定签署国之做法是对准民主的侵害(affront),但还是出道通过共享的平整来深化国家自主权。建立跨国公司征税的调和规范,协同控制资金可以流动,这些还是本着贸易保护主义和本土主义鼓吹者的神回应。最不好之结果是各个转而不予(turn
their backs on)全球化。本刊初创时支持废除《谷物法》(the Corn
Laws),而今仍需保持开放。与封闭经济体(closed
economies)相比,开放经济体(open
economies)会时有发生还多会,让人民走及富足(better
off)之路。19世纪40年间以来,自由贸易主义者直接相信封闭经济体对权贵阶层有利,而针对劳工阶层不利。他们之观在那时是本着之,而本为是天经地义的。

流动:本文就供就学交流的故,不意味着作者观点。

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