小聊设计思想的前行。Design Thinking 概览。

信用社半年会后无处都以说话计划思想,各处都于奋斗。我们领导人还是生跟得达潮流的嘛。因在哈佛商评论和福布斯的报导后“设计思想”在商业中被广大关注同实行起来。前几年美国顶级商学院就拿统筹思想(design
thinking)纳入课程体系,斯坦福大学建D.School等。在John
Maeda《科技中之计划性》年报告,很多雅企业与独角兽的创始人或高层里还出设计师在里,像IBM和麦肯锡前段时间宣布了该极其尖端职业被针对设计师的任命。从04年到2016年生超过50寒知名规划企业被收购,其中15,16年有26家。可见设计以经贸的青睐,及规划思想的暑。虽然老生气,可能过多总人口觉着他像VR、大数量、共享自行车等正起来之。实际上,“设计思想”(实际为是计划)做啊平种植方式已走过了一样截非缺少的提高历史了。何不歇一下,了解一下前身和近况也。做得了桌面研究后即花费了碰时整治了该文,把打工业时代到现在影响设计思想的人物做只稍介绍,因事关内容实在是太多了,被放大上来的,纯粹是圈咋样人熟悉,哪些人记录的详实些,不对的地方要指正,感谢伟大的互联网,感谢呢统筹思想付诸实践的“先烈”们。

作者:Thomas Lockwood, University of Westminster PhD, Integrated design
Management.

1960面前 包豪斯底统筹思想,人文和浪费,国际现代主义和大众文化

更工业革命,大萧条和二战后底工业设计。 兼顾效率生产和美学为主的时代。

Design Thinking 概览

筹思想本质上是坐用户也主导,强调考察,协作,快速学习,视觉化点子,快速概念原型,兼商业分析,最终影响创新及经贸策略的换代过程。他的目的是把顾客,设计师以及商业人士做及产品、服务还是商业的规划过程及。它是纪念像未来状态及把活,服务及心得带至市场及的工具。设计思想术语上来拘禁像是用设计师的机智和方解决问题,不管问题是怎么的。它不可知取代专业设计师或方式和手艺设计,但它是诱导创新之一律栽办法。

筹思想的几乎个重大条件:

1.基让现场调研深入明消费者

2.跟用户与复合型团队联手协作,寻找突破性创新、显著提升和加新价值高达

3.通过视觉化,亲手体验以及快原型来加快学习,快速取得用户举报。目标是透过快捷多次底黄来赢得更新。

4.原型化,可以是概念草图,粗糙的大体模块,或故事角色板,或一致组场景故事等

5.并行进行经贸分析,是殊重要的一点。

彼得·贝伦斯(Peter Behrens)

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业设计之前驱,第一员当代艺术设计师,是当代人的棋手,包括无与伦比知名的现代主义建筑师
密斯·范德罗(坚持”少就凡是差不多“的建筑哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之大),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三总人口且以他的工作室为他干活了。他是率先只尝试综合工艺及技巧成的设计师。

Design Thinking / Design management / Design Leadership / Design strategy 的区别

笔者的观是,
设计思想是同样栽助发现非显性的求或会,帮助创建新的化解方案的法。设计管理偏重于治本以及主管设计团队,过程与筹划产出物(产品、服务、沟通、环境与相互)。设计负责人与统筹策略更多考虑的凡设计思想与设计管理之效率与出现物上。

包豪斯:全新设计策略的教导

1919年格罗皮乌斯以德国创包豪斯,是首先所用贝伦斯的想法应用至高等教学中。密斯是终极一交校长。1930年当纳粹的压力下关闭,学校的设计师们还搬为美国,二战后包豪斯的规划哲学(平衡术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国之设计思想,随着这些口在美国各国处落脚,设计之思考运动吗于全美各地开。

筹思想在买卖、品牌,服务计划,客户体验上

创新驱动商业的差别,设计使得创新。

可是我们的题材已经远超过了商业问题,像MIT和哈佛以缓解的问题早就是系统层面的题材,像我们的食品供给体系,儿童肥胖,急救健康等,作为一个设计师和计划思考者,有这么的机会错过化解这样的问题是何等的欢快,通过自己力所能及影响和转社会问题。

计划协作与咨询在美国前行起步

1920-1930里头跟包豪斯同产生震慑之美国工业及图纸设计师,像 Harley Earl,
Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald
Desky(都是以美国诞生的),这些设计师将设计协作与咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的教诲同影响在美国的图像和工业设计。

  • 哈利·厄尔 Harley
    Earl
    ,首员在规划汽车及行使市场分策略的设计师

    Chevrolet Corvette

  • 雷蒙德·洛威 Raymond
    Loewy
    ,设计咨询升级现有技术产品
    于匪更改任何技术下,通过做美学、材料、制造大大改观特别年代丑陋的家电产品,第一位上上《时代》的设计师。他的设计不同让包豪斯的“形式从功能”(Form
    Follows
    Function),较偏于市场主义的“形式从市场”,他已经说过:“当商品以平等之标价同功效下竞争,设计虽是唯一的反差”。他起及时极深的宏图企业,接授设计委托,并盖“洛威设计”的名义发表,“洛威设计”在十分年代是同样栽优质设计的意味、销售保障的代名词,这等同作法在今天为会见于一些统筹企业。

    洛威的“阿汎提”设计草图,1963年

  • 亨利·德雷福斯 Henry
    Dreyfuss
    ,把丁以因素做吧活之核心设计
    当那个1955年之刊登的《Designing for
    People》同样修被论述了因为食指也按之计划性理念,以人数吗中心的计划极端早实践者和开拓者。

    Designing for People 书中节选

  • 保罗·兰德 Paul
    Rand
    ,将品牌识别以及国际主义相结合
    IBM,ABC,FEEDX,西屋、NeXT等视觉系统的计划性,将包豪斯倡导之现代方式和企划思想和美学标准,应用及商贸服务统筹被。

    IBM

ABC

“Design is relationship. Design is a relationship between form and
content.”

  • 乔治·尼尔森和查里斯夫妇,为家中以及办公室系统规划
    1945年乔治·尼尔森在Herman
    Miller做计划总监时就是将设计思想带进了家具概念设计中,设计师不以单干而是和平等博的设计师从网环境之角度来拘禁产品设计。在马上同理念及政策下查里斯以及雷·埃蒙斯设计了Eames
    Loung
    Chair。Charles经常鼓励工作人员多做试验,他曾经说他的愿意就是是“和那些事为毫无用处之档次之人一同工作。这样见面拍发生新想之火焰。”

    Eames Loung Chair

Chapter 1 Notes on the Evolution of Design Thinking: A Work in Progress

迈入中的规划思想

by Craig M. Vogel, Director of Center for Design Research and
Innovation, College of Design Architecture, Art and Planning, University
of Cincinnati

1960-1980 建立统筹执行,设计活动集中

计划执行以短短的20年时间跨度里,不仅更定义了计划是什么,更是证实了她好为此来开啊。这个相对短但非常密集的阶段于天下限量外出生了少种植了不同之计划性方。
60年份的美国=设计科学
60年代的美国,工业设计以及产品设计取得的第一稍微步的进步是正统及打工程与对区分出。但他俩连无走得重远,工业规划还是要根据可量化,可度量的题目同事件。设计工作室通常在高校实验室或工厂,不像今天的工作室以村镇里发生像咖啡厅一样的装裱。
表示有像MIT的Fuller建立多学科的天才团队拓展创新。

60年代斯堪的纳维亚=协同计划
于同期,Fuller不同的斯堪的纳维亚统筹,通过特邀大学与规划讨论。这些设计师扮演促进者或指导者角色,每个人以及专家及工友要居民共同企划他们感念使用的出品要服务。开发了成百上千惊人创新的品类,像Utopia,NJMF,DEMOkratiske
Stryringssystemer,DEMOS等辅助工人,工会,工作场地,政府部门应针对不断变更之条件。
这种工作法一直适用于我们今天领取的服务规划,这种工作方式严重依赖设计师的限举行边筹划及导,使用工具如”Mock-up
envisionment(模拟设想)”,未来围绕,组织游戏,合作原型,人种学领域研究,社会调查等来新想法还是改进现有。高度与
和佚代,集体讨论。
及20世纪80年份中,因为计算机的推广和HCI(人机交互)的前进,斯堪的纳维亚之合作规划终于迈出大西洋临美国,被普遍地誉为参与式设计。

PETER BEHRENS: CORPORATE IDENTITY AND BRAND DIFFERENTIATION

Peter Behrens (14 April 1868 – 27 February 1940) was a
German
architect
and
designer.
He was important for the modernist
movement,
and several of the movement’s leading names (including Ludwig Mies van
der
Rohe,
Le
Corbusier
and Walter
Gropius)
worked for him in earlier stages of their careers. He was one of the
first designers who tried to synthesize the two polar positions of
technology and craft.

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业规划之先驱,第一个当代艺术设计师,是一代人的能手,包括无与伦比红的现代主义建筑师
密斯·范德罗(坚持”少就是是基本上“的修建哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之大),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三丁还在他的工作室为外干活了。他是首先独尝试综合工艺与技艺整合的设计师。

Buckminister Fuller 的没错筹划

1956年于于MIT 创意工程实验室教授CADS(Comprehensive Anticipatory Design
Science)。他的实验室应用科学方法发生设计。Fuller的法门成立以工程师、工业设计师、材料专家、化学专家的有用之才团队的底子及开展创新。代表作品有:Geodesic
Domestic, the Dymaxion car, Triton city, the “Fly’s Eye” Dome等。

the Dymaxion car

“设计师是汇总了艺术家,发明家,机械师,经济专家与政策让同一套。”

The BAUHAUS: A NEW DESIGN STRATEGY FOR EDUCATION

包豪斯:全新设计策略的育

1919年格罗皮乌斯在道义创建包豪斯,是首先所拿贝伦斯的想法应用至高等教学中。密斯是终极一暨校长。1930年当纳粹的下压力下关闭,学校的设计师们还搬于美国,二战后包豪斯的计划哲学(平衡艺术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国之规划思想,随着这些口以美国诸处落脚,设计的沉思运动吧于全美各地放。

Scandinavian 协同计划

50年份盖简要、少、功能性,具有包容性和民主性为特点之一点一滴有别于其他设计方法的Scandinavian设计活动,在北欧国家一直本着系到今日。受语言的障碍使得这无异活动没有记录并传到更宽泛。60年代的Scandinavian协同计划于电脑的人机交互与服务统筹及闹过多底上扬。

Chairs at the Danish Design Center, Denmark

CORPORATE AND CONSULTING DESIGN IN THE UNITED STATES,设计协作和咨询在美国之上进

1920-1930内同包豪斯同发生影响的美国工业与图片设计师,像 Harley Earl,
Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald
Desky(都是当美国落地之),这些设计师将规划协作和咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的教导上齐影响在美国底图像以及工业规划。

Harley Earl and General Motors: Market Segmentation in the Auto Industry

Harley Earl 美国首位在计划汽车及行使市场细分策略,1927-1959

Raymond Loewy, Design Consultant: Updating Existing Technology

Loewy merged aesthetics, materials, and manufacturing to transform the
loud and ugly electric refrigerator of the 1920s into a modern kichen
appliance. The consumer response was immediate. In one year, sales of
Sears’s Cold Spot increased from 65,000 to 250,000 units – without any
significant change in core technology.

Henry Dreyfuss: Integrating Human Factors as a Core Component of Product
Design

Dreyfuss developed a more scientific approach to human factors and
integrated that perspective with product aesthetics. “to develop
individuals who will be competent to change their environment to greater
conformity with moral ideals.” This became the basis for Dreyfuss’s
human-centered approach. He expressed those ideas in his 1955 book,
Designing for people. Dreyfuss was a more articulate practitioner of
human-centered design than was Loewy.

Paul Rand and Elliot Noyes: Corporate Identity and the International
Movement

Noyes was educated as an architect at Harvard and studied under Gropius
and Bauhaus furniture designer Marcel Breuer. Rand, for his part, was
heavily influenced by what had come to be called the Swiss Style of
graphic design and helped to build a relationship between Switzerland’s
Basel school of Design and Yale University.

One of the first strategic design decisions Rand and Noyes conceived for
international Business Machines was to reduce its long and awkward name
to IBM. Modern identities, they believed, needed to be easy to read and
pronounce in all applications and all languages. The new logo and
identity system was integrated with an approach to curtain wall
architecture that was applied to the new buildings at IBM, as well as to
the outer panel construction design of mainframe computer systems.

George Nelson and Charles and Ray Eames: System Design for Home and Work

When George Nelson was appointed design director for Herman Miller in
1945, he brought a new level of design thinking to the concept of
furniture design for the home and office.

Modern office buildings were being designed using a systematic approach,
and Nelson saw the interior office landscape similarly-as a potential
opportunity for the application of modular design design systems. Each
individual piece of furniture would act as one in a series of flexible
parts with multiple configurations that would fit the modern open office
that had come into being in the 1950s and ’60s.

The husband-and-wife team of Charles and Ray Eames contributed some of
their most important designs under this new strategy. Both of them
studied at Michigan’s Cranbrook Academy of Art, and both were influenced
by Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. The Eames lounge chair and airport
seating solution, for Herman Miller, are two of the most influential
design projects of the twentieth century.

The ideas and work of Charles and Ray Eames represent a unique and vital
branch of design thinking. Their work is as powerful and influential as
that of Frank Lloyd Wright; yet they are virtually unknown outside of
the fields of design and architecture.

Herbert A. Simon

西蒙于1969出版的人为科学中,给规划一个初的归类与限。西蒙认为整个的规划应吃视为人造品,是自之对立面。

“The engineer, and more generally the designer, is concerned with how
things ought to be — how they ought to be in order to attain goals,
and to function.”

“Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing
existing situations into preferred ones.”

FROM PRODUCT TO ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE

In 1975 Bill Hannon founded the Design Management Institute(DMI) in
Boston, Massachusetts. This was the first professional organization in
the world dedicated to improving the role of design in business, and
helped to define design management as a new practice.

In 1976 Victor Papanek published his Design for the Real World, asking
designers to see the potential of design thinking for social and
environmental responsibility. He accused designers of catering to the
small percentage of consumers who have everything, while ignoring those
in lower income levels and emerging economies, as well as people with
disabilities.

In 1982, Ralph Caplan wrote in By design that Mahatma Gandhi’s concept
of nonviolent protest was one of the most effective design solutions in
history.

The Nobel laureate Herb Simon stated that there are really two types of
science. One concerns the world humans are responsible for producing(the
science of the artificial), and the other concerns the world in which
humans evolved(the science of the natural).

Science, engineering, and technology factor shifts have occurred in each
decade in the last century, opening new opportunities for designers. The
key ingredient for business success is the presence of both an
innovative CEO who sees design as an investment, not a cost, and a
strategic design director or consultant who can place the value of the
design at the center of the company. If either one leaves, the value of
design is jeopardized.
把规划作为是投资以,是无是成本;设计策略是合作社的基本;这半碰缺一不可才可能以今与前景改成创新使得之商号。

维克多·帕帕奈克 也实际世界计划

1971年
帕帕奈克的《为真实世界计划》给这之规划行业投下了平发很炸弹。帕帕奈克提出自己对规划目的性的初看法,即设计应当为普遍百姓服务;设计不仅当也常规人劳动,同时还必须考虑吧残疾人服务;设计应当认真考虑地球的有限资源用问题,设计应该
为保护我们居住的地的有限资
源服务。维克多·帕帕奈克对绿色设计思潮有了第一手影响,他首破提出了设计伦理的历史观,即设计为何?在“波普”设计活动的平等切片喧嚣的浪潮中,开始有人从统筹理论的角度严肃提出“设计目的”问题。这对于当代设计之天伦、现代计划之目的性理论来说,是老大重大的一个起点。正为有这起点,日后的规划理论才起了更为入木三分之迈入。

Chapter 2 The Designful Company by Marty Neumeier

2008 Survey of Wicked Problems

  1. Balancing long-term goals with short-term demands
  2. Predicting returns on innovative concepts
  3. Innovating at the increasing speed of change
  4. Winning the war for world-class talent
  5. Combining profitability with social responsibility
  6. Protecting margins in a commoditizing industry
  7. Multiplying success by collaborating across silos
  8. Finding unclaimed yet profitable market space
  9. Addressing the challenge of eco-sustainability
  10. Aligning strategy with customer experience

A wicked problem is a puzzle so persistent, pervasive, and slippery that
it can seem insoluble.

Business at bottom is not mechanical but human. Today, we find that
innovation without emotion is uninteresting. Products without aesthetics
are not compelling, brands without meaning are undesirable, and business
without ethics is unsustainable. The management model that got us here
is underpowered to move us forward. To succeed, the new model must
replace the win-lose nature of the assembly line with the win-win nature
of the network.

生意的下线无是机器而是口。今天,我们发现创新没有感情是从未意思的。产品未抖是从未有过可比性的,品牌未曾意思价值是勿会见发生欲望想使的,而商业没有伦理是不可持续的。

The sure cure for Deming’s diseases, as well as for the top ten wicked
problems, is design. It’s the accelerator for the company car, the
powertrain for sustainable profits. Design drives innovation, innovation
powers brand, brand builds loyalty, and loyalty sustains profits. If you
want long-term profits, don’t start with technology-start with design.

There are really only two main components for business success: brands
and their delivery. All other activities- operations, finance,
manufacturing, marketing, sales, communications, human relations,
investor relations- are subcomponents.

Horst Rittel, “Wicked Problem”的提出者

首批聚焦为规划方法理论的研究者之一,与外的长辈们不同,他力主人的体验以及感受在规划时的严重性。第一次等以气象学引入到体验设计被。

1980-1990 第二替设计思想理论的出现

夫时人们把拥有高度创意之设计师和日常的设计区分开来,把这些设计师在显微镜下研究,试着寻找来什么让她们灵感大爆发。在Nigel
Gross和Donald
Schön等研究员调查研究这些设计师独立工作经常,及团伙合作时的设计过程。从社会是角度他们注意到不管是个人要国有协作时设计创意无限关键的凡设计师的想模式。这些规划过程的检察为新兴其余工作进行创造性思维打开了大门。

Nigel Gross

Nigel
Gross在研设计方之前是人机交互领域的研究员。在外的精本《Designerly
ways of
Knowing》研究设计师的思索以及表决方式以及另外正规不同的是啊?这对构建统筹思想有着很怪的影响。

“Everyone can — and does — design. We all design when we plan for
something new to happen, whether that might be a new version of a
recipe, a new arrangement of the living room furniture, or a new lay
tour of a personal web page. […] So design thinking is something
inherent within human cognition; it is a key part of what makes us
human.”

Donald Alan Schön

Donald Schön
背景是MIT的城市规划的讲授和哲学家,他的多数工作于反对60年份的设计专业的技术性。他开发之反省实践,对于规划过程的中标十分主要。他的干活不仅大大影响了统筹,而且影响了团上世界。

“The reflective practitioner allows himself to experience surprise,
puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or
unique. He reflects on the phenomenon before him, and on the prior
understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour. He carries
out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of
the phenomenon and a change in the situation.”

1990-2005 服务计划与成千上万设计工具的产出

这个时期,设计之限量第二潮扩大。在90年份初设计的范围由创造人工制品扩大到相互和服务达。这种转变支持自Buchanan的《设计思想中的丑恶问题》一挥毫探讨了设计缓解复杂问题、模糊目标的潜力。
到2003年,欧洲四方之高校及卡内基梅隆以四处开始教服务规划。服务统筹之起来,及复杂问题被起新的计划性方法工具提供了好环境,包括为免设计师以及介入计划的家伙。

Donald Norman, User-Centered Design

认知是、人因为工程等规划领域的头面世界。在1988年问世的《日常的设计》提出
“UCD”以用户为基本的计划性。
我们有的筹划应当依据“适合用记”这个简单的概念模型。他的理念的主导是“我们日常生活中的大部学问且于条件及,而非是以头脑里”,以用户也核心的不二法门好理解用户之急需以及意识左,并采取行动解决。诺曼的UCD设计思想开辟了初的计划性方式视角。

Richard Buchanan,整合设计

Buchanan 原卡梅隆设计学院之负责人,他经过以Rittel和Simon
的理论与
Ezio
Manzini的规划执行相沟通,重新讨论了计划在化解Wicked
Problems中之角色,在1992登的《Wicked Problems in Design
Thinking》中画了一样漫长设计思想到履新之门径。在后的关于计划思想的《Design
as a New Liberal
Art》中说设计开吧规范的力是“整合”,也许是因专业性的欠,所以其再产生连续各个科目的或许。

Design has no subject matter — that’s what make this a powerful
discipline. We MAKE our subject matter.

Liz Sanders 工具先导者

Sanders,实验心理学与人类学的PhD. ,Make
Tools的缔造者,是使设计研究世界的前人。今天多因为人呢主导的筹划及筹划思想中行使的家伙,技术同方式还足以落她。她啊是合作计划工具箱的合作方,对于规划研究感兴趣之人来说,这个是一个实用的指针。

Convivial ToolBox

This human-centered design revolution is causing us to rethink the
design process. In order to drive the human-centered design
revolution, we need to tap into the imaginations and dreams not only
of designers, but also of everyday people. New design spaces are
emerging in response to everyday people’s needs for creativity.

IDEO 融汇者

IDEO

IDEO1991年经常由三贱设计企业合并而成,分别是David Delley
Design(斯坦福教授 David Kelley 创建),Based在伦敦之Moggridge
Associates和以旧金山底ID-Two(两者都是出于Bill Moggridge创建), 及 Matrix
Product Design(由Mike Nuttall
创建)。大约在Buchanan构建统筹思想的而,IDEO完成了三个店家的合并,在未来的十年发展受到,从学界以及规划执行吸引了同样批判好有影响力的人投入。
暨同时期的设计企业差,他们还要请了人类学,商业战略,教育或者正规相当不等世界的学者来指点与扩充他们计划团队及流程。这个差不多学科团队的方针在起几年后收获了过多的光。
从此他俩开始推广设计思想和坐人数吗中心的计划,在d.school推出了教导计划,撰写书本,并当全球的高等学校实践推广。

David & Tom Kelley

IDEO两单大家当与教诲工作,Kelley兄弟都是畅销书的作者。
他们还擅长设计及小卖部管理。他们合作的书写《创新自信力》,讲述创新创意的见地,帮助个人及部门释放潜能,树立创新自信。
及早前的Tom
Kelley的《创新之措施》里显示了IDEO创新思想。

“It turns out that creativity isn’t some rare gift to be enjoyed by
the lucky few — it’s a natural part of human thinking and behavior. In
too many of us it gets blocked. But it can be unblocked. And
unblocking that creative spark can have far-reaching implications for
yourself, your organization, and your community.” Tom Kelley

Tim Brown

[Tim Brown]
(https://www.ideo.com/people/tim-brown)IDEOIDEO)的CEO和工业设计师,
Brown一直是计划思想和翻新之主动倡导者 ,Design
thinking。他编著了广大针对性不设计师采用计划思想方面的章,其中设计变更总体,设计思想如何变革组织同激励创新。

In order to survive in today’s complex world, organizations need to
generate, embrace, and execute on new ideas. That takes creativity and
a creatively capable workforce. It’s the secret sauce, or in
evolutionary terms, it’s what keeps you fit. Organizations without it
can’t compete.

Jane Fulton Suri

起心理学和建筑学背景的IDEO 教母之称的Jane,
一直从事为开发多IDEO以人吧遵循的规划工具。引用其以IDEO的长河“她开了移情观察和经验原型的技能,现在叫大规模用于产品、服务与环境,及系统、组织及政策的换代以及设计上。”她的修《Thoughtless
Acts?》
展示了一直观察和统筹灵感中的关联。她多年来作文了《Design
Ethics》的短篇。

Bill Moggridge

英国红产品设计师,工业规划教学,交互设计以及IDEO创始人。他为采纳人性工程设计理论,同时为是今天产品设计主流理论的开发者。他设计了第一大贝壳式笔记本电脑,至今以是笔记本的主流外型。他作的《关键设计报告》介绍了相互设计的历史,从Douglas
Engelbart到Will
Wright
到 Larry
Page
和 Sergey
Brin。

I don’t think that anyone has really told (people) what design is. It
doesn’t occur to most people that everything is designed — that every
building and everything they touch in the world is designed. Even
foods are designed now. So in the process of helping people understand
this, making them more aware of the fact that the world around us is
something that somebody has control of, perhaps they can feel some
sense of control, too. I think that’s a nice ambition.

2002-现在 设计思想在商业领域站据了一个重大之位置

自打20年前计划思想开始为提及,经历了诸多的迭代,最近才得确认。
设计咨询公司包括“IDEO”,
数码智能设计企业如“青蛙”,软件设计公司若“思特沃克”,服务计划企业要“肯定牛”等都以02-08年前后开始调整自己的商战略,现在早就成企划行业之领先者。国内的铺面转变较晚至了2013年左右才开始调整,像Eico
Design。
一经商擅长的企业如麦肯锡等,也以2014年自通过收购计划企业进行战略的革命。[科技中的设计\ 2017](https://link.jianshu.com?t=https://designintechreport.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/dit-2017-1-0-1c-1.pdf)
劳务统筹领域的发展创建了合作计划与介入计划之新工具与流程。多学科团队的通力合作企划这无异于转变打开了其中创新,使设计过程对每个人再也透明与中。除了以计划领域在生意领域也初步应用用计划思想与协作规划的履行。Fuad
Luke,Sanders 和Manzini就是这块的先行者。
朝包容性迈进的变迁。随着智能手机的普及,微软提出要面向群众的宏图,带在空前的包容性去琢磨与劳作[Inclusive\ design\ at\ Microsoft](https://link.jianshu.com?t=https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/design/inclusive)

Alistair Fuad-Luke

Fuad-Luke平等员自称为规范设计主持人、教育家、作家及活动家,目前方上课后来之宏图执行。他的型强调和社区与私家,社会福得和替代经济系统的开放,合作,共同设计。他的写《Design
Activism》和《The
Eco-Design
Handbook》座谈设计以可持续发展中的作用。

Deborah Szebeko

Szebeko23秋时当英国建立了ThinkPublic社会设计部门,专门从事公共部门和非政府组织的计划与创新。用合作企划要关注社会问题,他们曾赢得了差不多件桂冠。

We use a mixture of design processes. We’ve got a diversity of
designers, including service designers, graphics designers,
information designers, programmers, marketers, social scientists,
positive psychologists, and even anthropologists. This diversity of
experts bring different techniques related to their disciplines, and
this mixture creates a unique design process — we call it a co-design
process — whereby we capture public views.

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

Kat
holmes微软首席设计总监,随着智能装备的普通,科技产品应有关爱群众,应该往包容性迈进转变。设计个性具有包容,通过辨认排他性,我们会初步对那些以日常生活中以及未吃欢迎的设计接触的用户建由与理心。

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

为资源来源以下:
[1] Thomas Lockwood. Design Thinking (Design Management Institue,
2009)
[2] John Maeda. Design In Tech Report(2016,2017)
[3] Jo Szczepanska. What is design thinking, why do I keep hearing
about
it?
[4] A BRIEF HISTORY OF DESIGN THINKING: THE
THEORY
[5] 大卫·瑞兹曼. 现代设计史
[6] Stefanie Di Russo.Understanding the behaviour of design thinking
in complex environments(2016)
[7] Rikke Dam, Teo Siang. What is Design Thinking and Why Is It So
Popular?
[8] Sean Van Tyne. Design Thinking: A Brief
History

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